Susceptibility is the key word right now…..Because our present generation may have become technologically developed….But all the advancements brought great luxury and comfort with it….And made us all the more lethargic….Which in turn has made us highly SUSCEPTIBLE….To whom if you ask….They are called Highly Resistant Species….And that’s why I call this “The Rise Of Antibiotic Resistant Species”…..
So what are these Antibiotic Resistant Species that are actually driving the nuts off our Scientists???….These are species that have developed resistance against the antibiotics that we normally use….These newly developed strains are like celebrity on blocks….Because they have the ability to overcome all innovations that are made in the antibiotics meant to destroy them….Pray what may be the reason for the successful survival of these species…..Our own self committed mistakes…Yes,we humans are only responsible for this (like all the problems that we create for ourselves….the most notable being Global Warming)…..The primary cause of this is genetic mutation in species….This happens because of the extensive use of the antibiotics….Many of the resistant strains develop what is called “Antibiotic Resistant Trait”…..which is transferred via Plasmids….This makes the rapid increase and growth of these species possible and their control highly impossible….
The four main mechanisms by which microorganisms exhibit resistance to antimicrobials are:
- Drug inactivation or modification: for example, enzymatic deactivation of Penicillin G in some penicillin-resistant bacteria through the production of lactamases
- Alteration of target site: for example, alteration of PBP-the binding target site of penicillins—in MRSA and other penicillin-resistant bacteria.
- Alteration of metabolic pathway: for example, some SULFONAMIDE-resistant bacteria do not require para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), an important precursor for the synthesis of folic acid and nucleic acids in bacteria inhibited by sulfonamides. Instead, like mammalian cells, they turn to utilizing preformed folic acid.
- Reduced drug accumulation: by decreasing drug permeabilityand/or increasing active efflux(pumping out) of the drugs across the cell surface.
Presently the most resistant species that thriving happily in our environment are- Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium difficile,Salmonella and E. coli,Acinetobacter baumannii….
So now the question that persists is….IS THERE ANY WAY OF ESCAPE????….Yes….THERE IS !!!!!
1) Rational use of antibiotics may limit the growth and spread of these resistant species…
2) It has been found that topical preparations like Tea Tree oil and Thyme oil are much effective against these species….So their use should be encouraged…
3) Phytotherapeutic medicines could almost not just limit the use of antibiotics but also eliminate their use entirely.
4) Bacteriophage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of multidrug resistant pathogens.Studies also demonstrated significant efficacy of phages against E.coli, Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp and S.aureus.
Like every coin has two sides….Even the rise of these species has had some positive effects….Antibiotic resistance has lead to the idea of development of Artificial Plasmids,the so called VECTORS…..The presence of the antibiotic resistant gene makes sure that the engineered gene is expressed in the copies that are produced after replication….The rise of the multi-drug resistant species,popularly called as Superbug has given the idea for the development of Pseudomonas putida-which has been engineered for the bioremediation of oil spills….
But this cannot overshadow the ill-effects of the Resistant species….So,all in all…Precautions have to be taken….These species might have given us great engineering ideas because of their great manipulation properties….But still they are hazardous and so all measures should be taken to prevent their Rise…..Unless of course,we don’t want our future generations to suffer the banes of this disaster….Think about it….Prevention is better than CURE….