A New Species Of Albino Spiders Discovered

Ever saw an Albino spider….No….but scientists in Australia have and are equally shocked about it!!!!

“I nearly fell over when I saw its white head,” Mark Harvey, senior curator at the Western Australian Museum, said via email.

The newfound trapdoor spider isn’t a true albino, since it still has some pigment—its body is brown, like those of other trapdoor spiders.

But the 1.2-inch-wide (3-centimeter-wide) arachnid has been dubbed the albino trapdoor spider until it’s formally described as a new species.

A person in a small town in western Australia found the strange-looking spider near his house, captured it in a jar, and sent it to the museum.

“Unfortunately we know nothing about its life history. We presume that they live in burrows for their entire lives—like all trapdoor spiders—and when males mature, they wander in search of females in their burrows,” Harvey said.

The newfound "albino" trapdoor spider.

Spiders That Pop Out for Prey

Trapdoor spiders get their name because they use soil, vegetation, and silk to construct doors to their burrows that are hinged with silk. The arachnids then pop out when they feel the vibrations of passing prey, which include insects, other arthropods, and small invertebrates.

The spiders also mate inside the burrows, where “males of all species probably have to lift the female body up to access her genital opening, which is located on the underside of the abdomen,” he said.

The new found spider is considered rare, Harvey added—it’s currently the only known specimen of its kind.

“Spiders are a diverse group of animals that fascinate and terrify many people,” though they’re crucial in keeping insect populations in check, he said.

“The world would be a poorer place without spiders.”

Courtesy-National Geographic

The 10 Most Deadliest Plants That I Won’t Dare Eat….

Beauty can be defying….and at times even DECEIVING….Yes….Because the most beautiful flowers which we find so very captivating are all on the list of poisonous plants….daffodils,buttercups and mistletoe are few examples of these pretty devils who can deceive us with their looks….Practically these plants are so beautiful because many of them are carnivorous and have evolved this way so that they can CHEAT little insects like honey bees who fall in for the good looks thinking that these deadly flowers are full of nectar!!!!

So here’s a list of 10 deadliest plants in the world that I won’t dare touch…Forget about eating them!!!!

 10. Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium)

Jimson Weed

Don’t go for it’s good looks….This plant cause hallucinations enough to drive anyone mad….Known as “ANGEL’S TRUMPET” because of its trumpet shaped flowers…. the only problem is that it is not at all ANGELIC….It is more commonly known as “Devil’s Weed” because it causes delusions, hallucinations, convulsions and perhaps death….

In 1676, when a group of British soldiers made themselves a salad out of the stuff….They survived, but according to one account, spent 11 days consumed by hallucinations and delusions before sobering up with no memory of their 17th-century-style psychedelic trip….I had say that making a salad out of jimson weed is not a good idea at all!!!!

9.Yew (genus Taxus)

Yew

This is plant that can neither be hated nor be trusted….This plant is favorite option for hedges and landscaping….But the berries which look absolutely delicious were always believed to be poisonous…but now it has been proved that it is other way around…Actually the berries are the only edible part of this plant….

The seeds and foliage are highly toxic, containing copious amounts of poisonous substances known as taxanes. Death comes suddenly and can involve convulsions, muscle tremors, difficulty breathing and heart failure…..But taxanes are in way good….because some are ave proved to be highly successful in Chemotherapy!!!

8.Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula)

Venus Flytrap

We have heard about this plant many times when we were in school….Well there is no connection between this plant and planet Venus nor it can be said to be ladylike (Remember women are from Venus)….Ya trap it is…But not for humans….It’s big time trap for unassuming insects that just walk into its flaps….Once inside the insect is trapped and the plant oozes out enzymes that completely digests the insects….

7. Sundews (Drosera family)

Sundew

Sundews….the name sounds so alluring….But these plants aren’t so…..luring insects with sweet, mucous-like excretions….once a insect who gets tempted enough to go near this plant and get entangled in this mess….it usually dies from suffocation….The plant then takes it upon itself to digest its prey and absorb the gooey, digested insect stew…..

Thank God!!!….Sundews and Venus flytrap are not big enough for humans….But still I won’t prefer going near these very gooey plant cannibals!!!!

6.Hemlock (Conium maculatum)

Hemlock

When I first saw these flowers I was like “Oh Wooowwww!!!!”…..Now if you wondering why these cute little flowers are called HEMLOCK….Let me explain….These are plants which were responsible for the death of Socrates….Back in his day, a hemlock cocktail was the preferred method of execution….

Conium maculatum, aka hemlock, poison hemlock or devil’s porridge….owes its poisonous bite to coniine, a neurotoxin that causes paralysis of the muscles, including the ones you need to breathe. Eventually, victims suffocate and die of lack of oxygen……So the next time you smell Hemlock….it means RUN!!!!

5. Deadly Nightshade (Atropa belladonna)

Deadly Nightshade

Not just the name but even the plant is deadly…..Don’t fall for its pretty flowers and equally delicious looking berries (which are sweet in taste)….it can cause delirium, hallucinations and eventually, death….

Only good thing about this plant is that….This plant is also the source of the drug atropine, which is commonly used on heart attack patients and less commonly used on victims of nerve gas….So being bad is not that bad actually!!!

4. Oleander (Nerium oleander)

Oleander

I really hate this….One more good looking plant that is so dangerous….This plant distinctly looks like Periwinkle….But is no where close to it (because Periwinkle is used for chemotherapy)….But this plant is very toxic….even a leaf can kill a child….

The toxins in oleander cause a whole range of severely unpleasant symptoms, including nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, dizziness, disorientation, seeing halos, low blood pressure, an irregular heartbeat and, of course, death….

3. Strychnine tree (Strychnos nux-vomica)

Strychnine tree (Strychnos nux-vomica)

Strychnine is famous for killing Rats….Yes….Well,I can see that smile….But if you planing to grow this plant anywhere near your home …..Give up the idea right away….  The seeds of the Strychnos nux-vomica tree, native to Southeast Asia, are the primary source of strychnine, which may be best known as a poison but was once used as a medicine (for its stimulant properties)….

Strychnine can cause severe convulsions that can eventually lead to death from exhaustion….I guess this reason is enough to steer away from this plant….You can leave the rats alive….unless you don’t want to kill yourself in bargain!!!

2. Nepenthes truncata

Nepenthes truncata

Well this is most dangerous variety of Pitcher plants….This plant is big enough to trap and digest a mouse. How does it do it? With a large pitcher-shaped pocket that is the perfect size for a mouse to just fall into…. At the bottom of the pitcher sits a bath of digestive enzymes….

I don’t know if this plant is toxic or not….But farmers and city dwellers who are absolutely fed up with the turmoil caused by these pesky rodents could try a “Nepenthes Trap“!!!!

1. Castor Plant (Ricinus communis)

Castor Plant (Ricinus communis)

This was where I got the shock of my life….I had never imagined that I’ll find THIS plant on this list…..Because I have grown up using Castor oil every time I had Tooth ache…..As few as four seeds could kill an adult, and it might only take one to poison a child….It is in fact be the most poisonous plant in the world….

Ricin is a poison found in the seed coat and throughout the castor plant….. The same seed that gives you castor oil could kill you…. Castor oil itself does not contain ricin, which separates out during the extraction process…..This plant causes intense abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea and ends with severe dehydration, low blood pressure and death…..

The list is complete…..But there may be many other plants which can be so very alluring….So please the next time you come across plants that make you almost lose your breath with their good looks…..Take a moment and think…..Beware….It may be curse in disguise!!!!!

The Threat To Genetic Diversity….Because of Climate Change…

Climate change threatens species’ genetic diversity too

Mayfly-Much has been talked about how climate change poses risk to ecosystems and individual species. But no one has analysed how global warming will affect the genetic diversity hidden within the species.

DNA studies have revealed that traditional species contain a vast amount of “cryptic” diversity—such as different lineages or even species within species. “The loss of biodiversity expected in the course of global warming has been greatly underestimated in previous studies, which have only referred to species numbers,” says Steffen Pauls of Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre in Germany.

Researchers from Senckenberg Research Institutes and Natural History Museum in Gelnhausen, Germany, have made the first attempt to understand the link.

Mayfly

The team looked at aquatic insects living in the mountain streams of central Europe—seven species of caddisfly, and one each of mayfly and stonefly. The insects were chosen because they are likely to be vulnerable to rising temperatures—they need cold water, and have limited ability to travel large distances. To measure genetic diversity, the team sequenced genes in the insects’ mitochondria, energy-generating cellular organelles that have a small genome.

This allowed the authors to divide each species into a number of evolutionary significant units (ESUs)—the technical term for a population within a species that is genetically distinct from the rest of its kind.

Caddisfly-On the basis of where in Europe each ESU is found, the researchers then analysed whether other insects in the same group would be able to tolerate higher temperatures or move to somewhere cooler, using two models developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study was published online on August 21 in the journal Nature Climate Change.

Caddisfly

They found that around 79 per cent of ESUs can become extinct by 2080 if the greenhouse gases emissions continue unabated. In case of reduced emissions 59 per cent of the ESUs were under risk of extinction.

“Our study also shows that species will survive but the majority of the genetic variations, which in each case exist only in certain places, will not,” says Carsten Nowak, lead researcher.

This means that self contained evolutionary lineages in other regions will become extinct, he adds. The authors note that knowledge about effect of climate change on genetic diversity is crucial to implement well-directed conservation strategies.

Commenting on the findings, Raghavendra Gadagkar professor at Centre for Ecological Sciences, Bengaluru says, “The techniques used by the researchers can now be readily applied to species of great economic importance such as agricultural pests or those of medical importance such as vectors of diseases.”

Courtesy-Down To Earth

The Truth Behind Fluorescent Scorpions!!!

Saguaro National Park, ArizonaHow do scientists find scorpions and certain other crawling animals in the dark, when a great many animals big and small are out and about in the desert night? They use a special light which makes the scorpions glow bright green, like the numerals on a watch.

Paul Marek, an entomologist at the University Of Arizona, tells us  how researchers went out at night during the BioBlitz this past weekend to look for scorpions and other nocturnal animals.

Fluorescence is where you have emission of radiation or light that strikes an object which re-emits the radiation or light at a different wavelength, Marek explained. “Black lights” are used to illuminate scorpions, which re-emit the light as green light.

Scientists know why scorpions are fluorescent like this, because of a nitrogenous substance in its cuticles, but what’s not known with any certainty is whether there is any purpose behind the fluorescence (other than to make it easy for humans to find them in the dark). “It’s a really easy thing to,” Marek said. “You go out at night into the Sonoran Desert with one of these UV lights and … these scorpions light up and glow like a little star field on the ground.”

Comparison- the scorpion as seen in normal light and its flourescent glow in dark

The photos above, show a scorpion glowing in a special light, compared with how the scorpion appears under regular light. Researchers aren’t quite sure if there is a reason why scorpions are fluorescent. Could it be a way for them to see one another in the dark?

The photos below are a selection of pictures made during the “inventory” to find nocturnal species in the Saguaro National Park BioBlitz. They were submitted by BioBlitz Photographic Ambassador Audrey Kanekoa-Madrid

Looking for scorpions this way, Marek said, confirmed a number of different species of scorpions are present in Saguaro National Park. “The most common ones we found were the Arizona bark scorpion, the striped scorpion, and the Arizona hairy scorpion.” The bark scorpion and the striped scorpion are the scorpions that cause the most medical problems, Marek said, because they pack the most venom.

Scorpions weren’t the only animals Marek and his team found in the BioBlitz of Saguaro. “We found some nice black widows, but what I didn’t know before is that their little spherical egg cases fluoresce. We also found some really nice big desert centipedes,” he said. It sounds like Saguaro is ready for Halloween!

Scorpions are an essential part of the ecosystem, Marek confirmed. “Scorpions are predators, so they feed on smaller arthropods, little cockroaches and flies … basically anything smaller than them … They keep herbivore populations down.”

Does anything eat scorpions? The southern grasshopper mouse preys on scorpions, Marek said. “They’re known as wolves in mice clothing. These little mice that actually bark … are like little ninjas. They go up and grab the scorpion, run around them, and can quickly chew off the tail of the scorpion, that has the stinger on it, so they can feast on the rest of it,” he said. Did the BioBlitz team see any of these ninja rodents during their field trip? “No, we didn’t see any of those, but the scorpions may have known about them,” Marek said.

Courtesy-National Geographic

Destroying The Invasive Species May Prove Very COSTLY???

Competition, not predation, is the most influential process that shapes food web

FOR centuries scientists have applied one golden rule to maintaining balance in an ecosystem—remove the invasive species. This rule may change soon.

A study has found that simply removing an invasive species, particularly a top predator, need not augur well for the invaded ecosystem; a complex ecosystem is never just about the predator and its prey. Position of prey in the food web is regulated more by what it eats than who eats it.A team of scientists led by New Zealand-based ecologist Wendy A Ruscoe investigated the consequences of the removal of top predator from a four-species food web comprising stoats, rats, possums and mice.

Stoat-One of Invasive Species

Stoats are common top predators in forests of New Zealand. They usually prey on rats which, in turn, compete with mice and possums for food. But possums give rats really tough competition. Mice do not compete with possums and stoats have no dietary interest in them either.

Based on outcomes of a previous simulation model, the team tested three established points: if reducing the stoat numbers would result in an increase in rat numbers, if reducing the number of possums would allow the rat numbers to go up, and if the mice numbers would shoot up in the absence of rats. The team chose four locations in the forests of central North Island and assigned two study sites to each location. Two sites at the first two locations were randomly assigned to either possum removal or possum and rat removal. The other sites were subjected to either control or stoat removal.

The results were unexpected. Whereas the simulation model suggested that removal of stoats would lead to increase in rat numbers, the experiments showed rats were unaffected by removal of their top predators. Rat numbers shot up in the possum removal sites. Mice numbers increased three times in the possum and rat removal sites. Possum numbers were low in the possum and rat removal sites and lowest in possum removal sites, as expected. No such response was seen in control or stoat removal sites.

The study, published in Ecology Letters in October 2011, shows that rat numbers were regulated more by competition for food with the possums rather than by predation. Going by the rule, if stoats were removed simply to give the rats a chance, the attempt would be a failed one.

So should one stop trying to manage invasive species? “Invasive species must be dealt with but understanding the consequences of removal must be considered beforehand. For example, invasive goat removal has affected native vegetation in these islands because the goats’ absence was responsible for increase in invasive weed species,” explains Ruscoe.

Asked whether the study applies to the recent removal of invasive Giant African snails in Kerala, TV Sajeev, scientist with the Kerala Forest Research Institute, replies, “We have not come across multiple species interactions with the Giant African Snail; neither did we find native species with the potential to replace the snail in the food web. The rule is that management of an invasive species is best done immediately after the invasion. When it has established itself, launching a single species eradication programme is not a good idea.”

Giant African Snail

Is There Any Escape From “The Rise Of Antibiotic Resistant Species” ????

Susceptibility is the key word right now…..Because our present generation may have become technologically developed….But all the advancements brought great luxury and comfort with it….And made us all the more lethargic….Which in turn has made us highly SUSCEPTIBLE….To whom if you ask….They are called Highly Resistant Species….And that’s why I call this “The Rise Of Antibiotic Resistant Species”…..

So what are these Antibiotic Resistant Species that are actually driving the nuts off our Scientists???….These are species that have developed resistance against the antibiotics that we normally use….These newly developed strains are like celebrity on blocks….Because they have the ability to overcome all innovations that are made in the antibiotics meant to destroy them….Pray what may be the reason for the successful survival of these species…..Our own self committed mistakes…Yes,we humans are only responsible for this (like all the problems that we create for ourselves….the most notable being Global Warming)…..The primary cause of this is genetic mutation in species….This happens because of the extensive use of the antibiotics….Many of the resistant strains develop what is called “Antibiotic Resistant Trait”…..which is transferred via Plasmids….This makes the rapid increase and growth of these species possible and their control highly impossible….

The four main mechanisms by which microorganisms exhibit resistance to antimicrobials are:

  1. Drug inactivation or modification: for example, enzymatic deactivation of  Penicillin G in some penicillin-resistant bacteria through the production of  lactamases
  2. Alteration of target site: for example, alteration of PBP-the binding target site of penicillins—in MRSA and other penicillin-resistant bacteria.
  3. Alteration of metabolic pathway: for example, some SULFONAMIDE-resistant bacteria do not require para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), an important precursor for the synthesis of folic acid and nucleic acids in bacteria inhibited by sulfonamides. Instead, like mammalian cells, they turn to utilizing preformed folic acid.
  4. Reduced drug accumulation: by decreasing drug permeabilityand/or increasing active efflux(pumping out) of the drugs across the cell surface.

Presently the most resistant species that thriving happily in our environment are- Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium difficile,Salmonella and E. coli,Acinetobacter baumannii….

So now the question that persists is….IS THERE ANY WAY OF ESCAPE????….Yes….THERE IS !!!!!

1) Rational use of antibiotics may limit the growth and spread of these resistant species…

2) It has been found that topical preparations like Tea Tree oil and Thyme oil are much effective against these species….So their use should be encouraged…

3) Phytotherapeutic medicines could almost not just limit the use of antibiotics but also eliminate their use entirely.

4) Bacteriophage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of multidrug resistant pathogens.Studies also demonstrated significant efficacy of phages against E.coli, Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp and S.aureus.

Like every coin has two sides….Even the rise of these species has had some positive effects….Antibiotic resistance has lead to the idea of development of  Artificial Plasmids,the so called VECTORS…..The presence of the antibiotic resistant gene makes sure that the engineered gene is expressed in the copies that are produced after replication….The rise of the multi-drug resistant species,popularly called as Superbug has given the idea for the development of Pseudomonas putida-which has been engineered for the bioremediation of oil spills….

But this cannot overshadow the ill-effects of the Resistant species….So,all in all…Precautions have to be taken….These species might have given us great engineering ideas because of their great manipulation properties….But still they are hazardous and so all measures should be taken to prevent their Rise…..Unless of course,we don’t want our future generations to suffer the banes of this disaster….Think about it….Prevention is better than CURE….

Seaweed’s “Chemical Weapons” Killing Corals

Warming oceans, coastal pollution, and even sunscreen have been blamed for the perilous state of the world’s Coral Reefs

Now scientists have added another coral-killing culprit to the mix: seaweed.

A new study of reefs around the Fiji Islands found that some seaweed causes coral bleaching and suppresses photosynthesis by emitting anti-coral chemicals.

Such seaweed could be helping to curb coral growth on reefs worldwide, the study authors say.

During the last several decades, scientists have observed numerous coral reefs being conquered by seaweeds. But experts haven’t been sure if the algae contributed to coral decline or simply benefited from it.

“Now our research suggests that, once corals decline due to a combination of global and local stresses, some seaweeds use chemical warfare to suppress the recovery of remnant adult corals and new coral recruits,” said study co-author Doughlas Racher, a doctoral candidate at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta.

Georgia Tech's Douglas Rasher prepares coral for experiments in Fiji.

Killer Seaweed Aided by Overfishing, Runoff

It’s unlikely that seaweed developed chemical weapons specifically to attack coral, since interactions between the two organisms have been historically infrequent on pristine reefs, Rasher said.

“We hypothesize that [seaweeds] may have evolved to produce these compounds on their surfaces in response to competition with microbes or attacks from [grazing animals], which they’ve been fighting for millions of years,” he explained.

“It’s only in ecologically recent times—perhaps over the last 30 or 40 years—that seaweeds have begun to have an impact on corals.”

Two main forces are thought to be driving the seaweed boom on reefs. In some cases, agricultural and sewage runoff dumps large amounts of nutrients on near-shore reefs, stimulating algae growth.

In other cases, including at Rasher’s study site in Fiji, seaweed may be gaining a foothold due to overfishing of algae-eating species.

For instance, near each coastal village Rasher studied there’s a marine protected area, with no fishing allowed, right next to unprotected reefs that are open to fishing.

“You often see the unprotected reefs dominated by macroalgae [i.e., seaweed], with corals and fish biomass being suppressed,” he said.

“This seems to be a consistent pattern along the coasts where we’re working, so you can see the [juxtaposition] even at a local scale, within a few kilometers.”

Algae-Eaters Needed to Protect Reefs

Rasher and his advisor, Mark Hay, hope their research can help reef managers understand which algae are harmful to coral and highlight ways to reverse the trend of seaweed growth.

“For years we have seen patterns suggesting that seaweeds might be chemically damaging corals,” Hay said.

“Doug’s work finally demonstrates that it is chemical, [reveals] what those chemicals are, and [shows] which fishes best control the most chemically aggressive seaweeds.”

Rasher added that Fiji’s protected marine reserves could naturally supply new coral larvae to adjacent reef habitats, although the situation is unlikely to improve if seaweeds continue to suppress new coral recruits.

“Our results suggest that bans on the harvest of seaweed-eating fish may decrease algal abundance on the degraded reefs and thus make these reefs more prone to coral re-establishment,” he said.

Courtesy-National Geographic

The Unfastened Psychology Of A Guy’s Mind !!!!

Human mind is the most invariably intriguing thing in the world….It defines our behavior and ability to take decisions….emote and uniquely distinguishes us the from the other animals in Phylum Vertebrata….But genuinely….Still,the most difficult job in this world is to understand the brains of Guys….When they lie,they are speaking the truth and when you believe that they are speaking the truth…It’s always the other way around….Here’s to complete list of actual ground breaking truths about Guys….Hope you all gals out there who really have difficult time understanding your guy may find this post useful:-)

1. Guys don’t actually look after good-looking girls. They prefer neat and presentable girls.

2. Guys hate flirts… (although they are big time flirts)….They had prefer a gal with clean image…

3. A guy can like you for a minute, and then forget you afterwards.

4. When a guy says he doesn’t understand you, it simply means you’re not thinking the way he is.

5. “Are you doing something?” or “Have you eaten already?” are the first usual questions a guy asks on the phone just to get out from stammering.

6. Guys may be flirting around all day but before they go to sleep, they always think about the girl they truly care about.

7. When a guy really likes you, he’ll disregard all your bad characteristics.

8. Guys go crazy over a girl’s smile.

9. Guys will do anything just to get the girl’s attention.

10. Guys hate it when you talk about your ex-boyfriend.

11. When guys want to meet your parents. Let them.

12. Guys want to tell you many things but they can’t. And they sure have one habit to gain courage and spirit to tell you many things and it is drinking!

13. Guys cry!!!

14. Don’t provoke the guy to heat up. Believe me. He will.

15. Guys can never dream and hope too much.

16. Guys usually try hard to get the girl who has dumped them, and this makes it harder for them to accept their defeat.

17. When you touch a guy’s heart, there’s no turning back.

18. Giving a guy a hanging message like “You know what? Uh…never mind!” would make him jump to a conclusion that is far from what you are thinking.

19. Guys go crazy when girls touch their hands.

20. Guys are good flatterers when courting but they usually stammer when they talk to a girl they really like.

21. When a guy makes a prolonged “umm” or makes any excuses when you’re asking him to do you a favor, he’s actually saying that he doesn’t like you and he can’t lay down the card for you.

22. When a girl says “no”, a guy hears it as “try again tomorrow.”

23. You have to tell a guy what you really want before he gets the message clearly.

24. Guys hate nice boy!

25. Guys love their moms.

26. A guy would sacrifice his money for lunch just to get you a couple of roses.

27. A guy often thinks about the girl who likes him. But this doesn’t mean that the guy likes her.

28. You can never understand him unless you listen to him.

29. If a guy tells you he loves you once in a lifetime. He does.

30. Beware. Guys can make gossips scatter through half of the face of the earth faster than girls can.

31. Like Eve, girls are guys’ weaknesses.

32. Guys are very open about themselves.

33. Its good to test a guy first before you believe him. But don’t let him wait that long.

34. No guy is bad when he is courting

35. Guys hate it when their clothes get dirty. Even a small dot.

36. Guys really admire girls that they like even if they’re not that much pretty.

37. Your best friend, whom your boyfriend seeks help from about his problems with you may end up being admired by your boyfriend.

38. If a guy tells you about his problems, he just needs someone to listen to him. You don’t need to give advice.

39. A usual act that proves that the guy likes you is when he teases you.

40. A guy finds ways to keep you off from linking with someone else.

41. Guys love girls with brains more than girls in miniskirts.

42. Guys try to find the stuffed toy a girl wants but would unluckily get the wrong one.

43. Guys virtually brag about anything.

44. Guys cannot keep secrets that girls tell them.

45. Guys think too much.

46. Guys’ fantasies are unlimited.

47. Girls’ height doesn’t really matter to a guy but her weight does!

48. Guys tend to get serious with their relationship and become too possessive. So watch out girls!!!

49. When a girl makes the boy suffer during courtship, it would be hard for him to let go of that girl.

50. It’s not easy for a guy to let go of his girlfriend after they broke up especially when they’ve been together for 3 years or more.

51. You have to tell a guy what you really want before getting involved with that guy.

52. A guy has to experience rejection, because if he’s too-good-never-been-busted, never been in love and hurt, he won’t be matured and grow up.

53. When an unlikable circumstance comes, guys blame themselves a lot more than girls do. They could even hurt themselves physically.

54. Guys have strong passion to change but have weak will power.

55. Guys are tigers in their peer groups but become tamed pussycats with their girlfriends.

56. When a guy pretends to be calm, check if he’s sweating. You’ll probably see that he is nervous.

57. When a guy says he is going crazy about the girl. He really is.

58. When a guy asks you to leave him alone, he’s just actually saying, “Please come and listen to me”

59. Guys don’t really have final decisions.

60. When a guy loves you, bring out the best in him.

61. If a guy starts to talk seriously, listen to him.

62. If a guy has been kept shut or silent, say something.

63. Guys believe that there’s no such thing as love at first sight, but court the girls anyway and then realize at the end that he is wrong.

64. Guys like femininity not feebleness.

65. Guys don’t like girls who punch harder than they do.

66. A guy may instantly know if the girl likes him but can never be sure unless the girl tells him.

67. A guy would waste his time over video games and basketball, the way a girl would do over her romance novels and make-ups.

68. Guys love girls who can cook or bake.

69. Guys like girls who are like their moms. No kidding!

70. A guy has more problems than you can see with your naked eyes.

71. A guy’s friend knows everything about him. Use this to your advantage.

72. Don’t be a snob. Guys may easily give up on the first sign of rejection.

73. Don’t be biased. Try loving a guy without prejudice and you’ll be surprised.

74. Girls who bathe in their eau de perfumes do more repelling than attracting guys.

75. Guys are more talkative than girls are especially when the topic is about girls.

76. Guys don’t comprehend the statement “Get lost” too well.

77. Guys really think that girls are strange and have unpredictable decisions but still love them more.

78. When a guy gives a crooked or pretentious grin at your jokes, he finds them offending and he just tried to be polite.

79. Guys don’t care about how shiny their shoes are unlike girls.

80. Guys tend to generalize about girls but once they get to know them, they’ll realize they’re wrong.

81. Any guy can handle his problems all by his own. He’s just too stubborn to deal with it.

82. Guys find it so objectionable when a girl swears.

83. Guys’ weakest point is at the knee.

84. When a problem arises, a guy usually keeps himself cool but is already thinking of a way out.

85. When a guy is conscious of his looks, it shows he is not good at fixing things.

86. When a guy looks at you, either he’s amazed of you or he’s criticizing you.

87. When you catch him cheating on you and he asks for a second chance, give it to him. But when you catch him again and he asks for another chance, ignore him.

88. If a guy lets you go, he really loves you.

89. If you have a boyfriend, and your boy best friend always glances at you and it obviously shows that he is jealous whenever you’re with your boyfriend, all I can say is your boy best friend loves you more than your boyfriend does.

90. Guys learn from experience not from the romance books that girls read and take as their basis of experience.

91. You can tell if a guy is really hurt or in pain when he cries in front of you!

92. If a guy suddenly asks you for a date, ask him first why.

93. When a guy says he can’t sleep if he doesn’t hear your voice even just for one night, hang up. He also tells that to another girl. He only flatters you and sometimes makes fun of you.

94. You can truly say that a guy has good intentions if you see him praying sometimes.

95. Guys seek for advice not from a guy but from a girl.

96. Girls are allowed to touch boys’ things. Not their hair!

97. If a guy says you’re beautiful, that guy likes you.

98. Guys hate girls who overreact.

99. Guys love you more than you love them if they are serious in your relationships.

Faith….The Biggest Hope in This Universe!!!!

One Of The Best Arguments.!! I have ever read

Don’t miss even a single word…. It’s Too good

An atheist professor of philosophy speaks to his class on the problem science has with God, The Almighty.
He asks one of his new students to stand and…..

Prof: So you believe in God?

Student: Absolutely, sir.

Prof: Is God good?

Student: Sure.

Prof: Is God all-powerful?

Student: Yes..

Prof: My brother died of cancer even though he prayed to God to heal him. Most of us would attempt to help others who are ill. But God didn’t. How is this God good then? Hmm?
(Student is silent.)

Prof: You can’t answer, can you? Let’s start again, young fella. Is God good?

Student: Yes.

Prof: Is Satan good?

Student: No.

Prof: Where does Satan come from?

Student: From….God…

Prof: That’s right. Tell me son, is there evil in this world?

Student: Yes.

Prof: Evil is everywhere, isn’t it? And God did make everything. Correct?

Student: Yes.

Prof: So who created evil?
(Student does not answer.)

Prof: Is there sickness? Immorality? Hatred? Ugliness? All these terrible things exist in the world, don’t they?

Student: Yes, sir.

Prof: So, who created them?
(Student has no answer.)

Prof: Science says you have 5 senses you use to identify and observe the world around you. Tell me, son…Have you ever seen God?

Student: No, sir.

Prof: Tell us if you have ever heard your God?

Student: No, sir.

Prof: Have you ever felt your God, tasted your God, smelt your God? Have you ever had any sensory perception of God for that matter?

Student: No, sir. I’m afraid I haven’t.

Prof: Yet you still believe in Him?

Student: Yes.

Prof: According to empirical, testable, demonstrable protocol, science says your GOD doesn’t exist.
What do you say to that, son?

Student: Nothing. I only have my faith.

Prof: Yes. Faith. And that is the problem science has.

Student: Professor, is there such a thing as heat?

Prof: Yes.

Student: And is there such a thing as cold?

Prof: Yes.

Student: No sir. There isn’t.
(The lecture the after becomes very quiet with this turn of events.)

Student: Sir, you can have lots of heat, even more heat, superheat, mega heat, white heat, a little heat or no heat..
But we don’t have anything called cold. We can hit 458 degrees below zero which is no heat, but we can’t go any further after that. There is no such thing as cold. Cold is only a word we use to describe the absence of heat. We cannot measure cold. Heat is energy Cold is not the opposite of heat, sir, just the absence of it .
(There is pin-drop silence in the lecture theatre.)

Student: What about darkness, Professor? Is there such a thing as darkness?

Prof: Yes. What is night if there isn’t darkness?

Student : You’re wrong again, sir. Darkness is the absence of something. You can have low light, normal light, bright
light, flashing light…..But if you have no light constantly, you have nothing and it’s called darkness, isn’t it? In reality, darkness isn’t. If it were you would be able to make darkness darker, wouldn’t you?

Prof: So what is the point you are making, young man?

Student: Sir, my point is your philosophical premise is flawed.

Prof: Flawed? Can you explain how?

Student: Sir, you are working on the premise of duality. You argue there is life and then there is death, a good God and a bad God. You are viewing the concept of God as something finite, something we can measure. Sir, science can’t even explain a thought.. It uses electricity and magnetism, but has never seen, much less fully understood either one.To view death as the opposite of life is to be ignorant of the fact that death cannot exist as a substantive thing. Death is
not the opposite of life: just the absence of it.
Now tell me, Professor.Do you teach your students that they evolved from a monkey?

Prof: If you are referring to the natural evolutionary process, yes, of course, I do.

Student: Have you ever observed evolution with your own eyes, sir?
(The Professor shakes his head with a smile, beginning to realize where the argument is going.)

Student: Since no one has ever observed the process of evolution at work and cannot even prove that this process is an on-going endeavor, are you not teaching your opinion, sir? Are you not a scientist but a preacher? (The class is in uproar.)

Student: Is there anyone in the class who has ever seen the Professor’s brain?
(The class breaks out into laughter.)

Student : Is there anyone here who has ever heard the Professor’s brain, felt it, touched or smelt it? No one appears to have done so. So, according to the established rules of empirical, stable, demonstrable protocol, science says that you have no brain,sir. With all due respect, sir, how do we then trust your lectures, sir?
(The room is silent. The professor stares at the student, his face unfathomable.)

Prof: I guess you’ll have to take them on faith, son.

Student: That is it sir… The link between man & god is FAITH . That is all that keeps things moving & alive.

I believe you have enjoyed the conversation…and if so…you’ll probably want your friends/colleagues to enjoy the same…won’t you?….this is a true story, and the

student was none other than …….
APJ Abdul Kalam, the former President of India

Dead Sea’s New Found Treasures!!!!

Dozens of giant craters spewing Fresh water and brimming with bacteria have been found at the otherwise barren bottom of the Dead Sea, new research shows.

In 2010 the first diving expedition to the springs revealed “a fantastic hot spot for life” in the lake, which lies on the border of Israel and Jordan, said team member Danny Ionescu, a marine microbiologist for the Max Planck Institute in Germany.

The team found several craters—each about 33 feet (10 meters) wide and 43 feet (13 meters) deep—at 100-foot (30-meter) depths on the lake’s bottom. The craters were covered with films and sometimes surprisingly thick mats of new bacterial species, Ionescu said.

These tiny communities live near thin plumes of fresh water that shoot from undersea springs, whose presence has long been suspected based on peculiar ripples on the Dead Sea’s surface.

To reach the springs, divers searched for abrupt drops along the seafloor while contending with very low visibility.

“When you put your head in [a crater] you cannot see anything—you have to have faith and will to explore,” Ionescu said.

But once the water cleared near the base of the crater, seeing the plumes jetting from the earth was “a fascinating feeling,” he said.

Dead Sea Truly Almost Dead

Rivers and streams—most notably the Jordan River—once regularly infused fresh water into the Dead Sea.

The basin has no outlet, so water escapes only by evaporation. As fresh water evaporates, salty minerals dissolved in the water get left behind. Over time, this process made the Dead Sea much saltier than ocean water.

The lake’s saltiness means that larger organisms such as fish and frogs can’t survive in the Dead Sea. But a high concentration of magnesium also makes it surprising to find microbes in the lake.

“There are other hypersaline environments that are full of microbial life,” Ionescu noted. “This, in my opinion, makes our discovery even more surprising.”

In the 1950s Jordan cut off the Jordan River’s supply to the Dead Sea to gain drinking water. The move severely lowered the lake’s water level—a loss that continues by up to a meter (four feet) a year, according to the research team.

Water in the lake, which already sits in the lowest place on Earth, has fallen by more than 80 feet (25 meters) in the past 40 years.

Few biologists have studied the water body in recent years, except following two major algae bloom events that colored the Dead Sea red in 1980 and 1992.

The surface blooms were caused by organisms different than those recently discovered at depth, Ionescu noted.

In general, the “study really changes how we see the Dead Sea, from a biological perspective,” said Kelly Bidle, an environmental microbiologist at Rider University in New Jersey who studies bacteria that live in salty habitats.

That’s because “seeing this diversity in a place we had never thought was there before” is very exciting, she said.

“Impressive” Craters Unique to Dead Sea

The 2010 expedition mapped an “impressive” network of about 30 craters, a landscape that has no parallel elsewhere on Earth, said team leader Ionescu, whose research is soon being submitted for publication.

Preliminary analyses of samples collected in the craters suggest that the springs’ bacterial communities are very diverse—akin to what you’d find living on rocks in a regular saltwater sea, he added.

The top of the springs’ rocks are covered with green biofilms, which use both sunlight and sulfide—naturally occurring chemicals from the springs—to survive. Exclusively sulfide-eating bacteria coat the bottoms of the rocks in a white biofilm.

Not only have the organisms evolved in such a harsh environment, Ionescu speculates that the bacteria can somehow cope with sudden fluxes in fresh water and saltwater that naturally occur as water currents shift around the springs.

The existence of such adaptable bacteria is an “intriguing” idea that needs more research, Rider University’s Bidle said.

As of right now, “there is no such documented species that exists that could fit this bill”—all highly salt-adapted bacteria die when placed in fresh water, and vice versa, she noted.

If “your machinery is wired for high salt, it’s very difficult to imagine that you could go from an extreme amount of salt to near-freshwater biology.”

Even so, Bidle doesn’t totally rule out the idea: “When it comes to inhabiting extreme environments, nothing surprises me when it comes to microbial life,” she said.

Dead Sea Diving Not for Everyone

Ionescu and colleagues will visit the underwater craters again in October to study more about the behaviors and life cycles of the newfound bacteria.

It’s no easy task—each diver has to carry 90 pounds (40 kilograms) of weight to lower his or her buoyancy, since the sea’s high salt content tends to make people float.

Divers will also need to wear full face masks to protect their eyes and mouths. That’s because accidentally swallowing Dead Sea salt water would cause the larynx to inflate, resulting in immediate choking and suffocation.

Likewise, the intensely salty water would instantly burn and likely blind the eyes—both reasons why Dead Sea swimmers rarely fully submerge their bodies, Ionescu noted.

“It’s a very unique experience,” Ionescu said of diving in the Dead Sea, but “I wouldn’t recommend it for recreational diving.”

Courtesy-National Geographic.